I was once asked in an interview: "How can I determine if an illustration is of high quality? Some people like it, but others don't. There must be some objective criteria that prove the image's quality."
Let's put aside for a moment that an illustration is a work of art, an individual product of an artist's work, and a matter of personal taste. In theory, any created image could be used as a cover or a poster. It's difficult to distinguish the criteria for good illustration, and there's no perfect recipe. However, we can say that an image should effectively satisfy its objectives. For example, if it's a poster, the idea the illustrator is trying to convey depends on their work with the format. A poster is viewed from a distance, like any other outdoor advertising, so fine details can interfere with the reception of the idea.